DDC offers an affordable paternity test solution via the internet. We can provide you with the most affordable paternity test to suit your needs.
DDC’s laboratory directors and professional staff have a combined experience of over 75 years in DNA technology, paternity testing and cytogenetic studies. The laboratory directors all hold doctorate degrees in DNA technology and are completely licensed for performing DNA paternity testing.
Buccal swabs are similar to the cotton wool buds found in most people’s bathroom cabinets. During DNA sample collection, two buccal swabs are rubbed against the inside of the person’s cheeks (one swab is used on each cheek). The rubbing motion gathers loose cheek cells, and these cells contain the DNA used in the genetic test.
STR-based cell line authentication verifies cell lines used in biomedical research to investigate disease pathways and therapies. Studies have shown an alarming percentage of human cell lines, those purchased from commercial repositories and primary cell lines, are contaminated or misidentified. Poor cell culture technique, shared equipment and poor quality control in a laboratory can all contribute to the misidentification and contamination issues. This is why in late 2007, an open letter by a group of scientists led by Dr. Roland Nardone spurred the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to recommend authenticating cell lines in scientific studies.
Chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. Genes are the individual instructions that tell our bodies how to develop and keep our bodies running healthy. In every cell of our body there are 50,000 to 100,000 genes that are located on 46 chromosomes. These 46 chromosomes occur as 23 pairs. We get one of each pair from our mother in the egg, and one of each pair from our father in the sperm. The first 22 pairs are labeled longest to shortest. The last pair are called the sex chromosomes labeled X or Y. Females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY).
Everyone should have 46 chromosomes in every cell of their body. If a chromosome or piece of a chromosome is missing or duplicated, there are missing or extra genes respectively. When a person has missing or extra information (genes), problems can develop for that individual’s health and development.
Each of the chromosomes has a “p” and “q” arm; “p” (petit) is the short arm and “q” is the long arm. Some of the chromosomes, such as 13, 14, and 15, have very small “p” arms. When a karyotype is made (see below), the “q” arm is always put on the bottom and the “p” is on the top. The arms are separated by a region known as the centromere (red in picture), which is a pinched area of the chromosome.
The chromosomes need to be stained in order to see them with a microscope. When stained, the chromosomes look like strings with both light and dark ‘bands’. Each chromosome arm is defined further by numbering the bands, the higher the number, the further that area is from the centromere.
Collection kits like those used in home DNA testing contain a set of swabs that, when used properly, can accurately, quickly and simply determine if two people are related. The swabs are used to gather cheek cells for the subjects to be tested. The genetic material is then extracted from the cells and analyzed.
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA stores biological information. These molecules carry most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins and complex carbohydrates, they comprise the three major types of macromolecule that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase—either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T)—as well as a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. According to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G), hydrogen bonds bind the nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands to make double-stranded DNA. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037, and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 trillion tons of carbon.
DNA Diagnostics Centre (DDC) was established in 1995 and has performed analysis on over 1 million genetic samples to date. Fully accredited and offering a wide range of DNA testing services including paternity and family relationship tests for both personal knowledge reasons and for use in legal situations.
DDC’s DNA clinic is based in West London for DNA sample collection services and we have over 4,500 collection centres throughout the United Kingdom and internationally. If you require a consultation and appointment please call our customer services team on 0845 408 2084 or complete the form below. We look forward to assisting you.
DDC can use the power of DNA analysis to reconstruct a family tree. To build a DNA family tree, we do a number of tests which can unambiguously determine the exact degree of relatedness between individuals. Armed with this information DDC can build a DNA family tree entirely on DNA analysis. You can be sure that at DDC you will receive the best standard of service.
For more information on using the power of DNA testing to research your DNA family tree, please navigate to our Y Chromosome page.
DNA Internet is a term that is commonly referred to as DNA testing accessibility on the internet. DNA Internet is the new media in which people can easily access DNA tests for testing different relationships.
DDC is a company like many that advertise DNA services on the internet. Not all companies that advertise DNA testing on the web can be considered safe. Consider the following questions:
- Does the company openly display its Company Registration Numbers?
- Do the company / laboratory have a VAT registration number?
- Does the company offer you the opportunity to have your DNA sample taken at their offices?
- Do they offer you the option to visit the laboratories which are used for the processing of your DNA?
Please feel free to visit our FAQs if you are looking to gain further information about DNA and the Internet and view frequently answered questions.
DNA profiling is an analysis of an individual’s DNA for a number of DNA markers. Usually, for human identity studies, DNA is profiled using specific DNA regions called microsatellites. DNA profiling by microsatellites is used for paternity testing as well as other types of relationship testing.
DNA reconstruction is a complicated series of genetic tests that can often be performed when an alleged father is unavailable for paternity testing and other genetic tests, such as grandparentage DNA testing, have been eliminated as possible testing options to indirectly determine who the father of a child is.
DNA technology is a rapidly evolving area of biotechnology. Currently it is possible to do DNA analysis using a minute amount of DNA. Recent breakthroughs in DNA technology have made high-throughput genotyping possible. This has significantly reduced the cost of DNA testing and made it accessible to the general public.
Using the latest advances in DNA technology, DDC offers a wide range of DNA tests for human identification and kinship determination. Our accurate resulting process provides us with a 100% track record for results standing up within a UK court.
DNA testing relies on comparing fragments of DNA between individuals in order to identify genetic relatedness between them. DDC’s laboratory offers the UK’s most accurate paternity testing as well as an extensive range of DNA testing for kinship determination. In some cases, results of DNA testing may need to be presented in UK court. For this purpose we have legally accepted tests available for determining paternity and maternity, and also DNA testing for immigration purposes.
There are many reasons to arrange a DNA test; taking a DNA test to establish paternity is probably one of the most common. Other reasons for DNA testing include:
- Child Support
- Paternity Establishment/Disestablishment
DDC provides solutions for all of the above reasons. Because DDC’s laboratory is accredited by the Department of Constitutional Affairs, we can arrange a DNA test for paternity cases with your own solicitor. We also have a panel of approved Doctors throughout the UK to help you to conduct your DNA test for paternity.
DNA Diagnostics Centre (DDC) offers a prenatal paternity test to accurately determine the paternity of a baby before the child is born. Through our advanced expertise and technology, we use DNA SNP microarray technology to preserve and analyse the baby’s DNA found within the mother’s bloodstream, which is far safer for mother and baby.
DNA Diagnostics Centre (DDC) was established in 1995 and expanded to become one of the world’s largest providers of DNA testing services. DDC is fully accredited with ISO 17025 and approved by the Ministry of Justice. Clients can perform their required DNA test for peace of mind reasons or for legal purposes.
Call our client services department today on 0845 408 2084 for a free, no-obligation, discussion regarding your DNA testing requirement.
DDC is a leading provider of DNA tests in the UK for paternity. Paternity is a very important issue considering that 15-20% fathers in the UK are raising someone else’s children. Every year, more than 30,000 DNA test cases are performed in the UK and DDC is the company you can trust to determine paternity in your case.
DNA testing relies on comparing fragments of DNA between individuals in order to identify genetic relatedness between them. DDC’s laboratory offers the UK’s most accurate paternity testing as well as an extensive range of DNA testing for kinship determination. In some cases, results of DNA testing may need to be presented in UK court. For this purpose we have legally accepted tests available for determining paternity and maternity, and also DNA testing for immigration purposes.
DDC provides tests to individuals, as well as corporate entities such as county councils and solicitors nationwide. Our accurate resulting process provides us with a 100% track record for results standing up within a UK court.
Since our establishment in 1995, DDC has grown significantly and now serves 168 countries with certified DNA testing services. We have in excess of 4,500 national and international collection centres and assist government, border authorities, social services, adoption agencies and private clients.
Demand for DNA worldwide is increasing with a growing requirement for fast, affordable DNA testing services for both personal knowledge reasons and for legal purposes. Please call our client services team on 0845 408 2084.
Paternity can be determined in a number of ways with DNA testing being the most accurate way of establishing paternity. This procedure involves comparing DNA fragments from an alleged father to those of the child in order to find whether there is any similarity between them. If the child has DNA fragments which are not found in the alleged father then paternity is rejected, otherwise paternity is not excluded and a paternity index is calculated to provide a mathematical estimate of the possibility of a relationship between the alleged father and the child.
Establishing paternity can be useful in many circumstances. Whether an individual would simply like to resolve his or her doubts regarding paternity, or take a step further and resolve legal issues such as child support (CSA), custody of children, or adoption, a paternity test can potentially be the means of helping an individual to avoid unnecessary child support payments and years of emotional heartache.
DDC is the UK’s leading provider of DNA tests for establishing paternity. DDC provides tests to individuals, as well as corporate entities such as county councils and solicitors nationwide. Our accurate resulting process provides us with a 100% track record for results holding up within a UK court.
DDC assists people in the identification of family genes associated with genetic health problems. Current DNA technology can identify a gene within a family which is responsible for a specific conditions, like breast cancer or other types of conditions. If a certain condition is known to be within a family, DDC can use all the power of DNA analysis to identify the family gene.
Clients wanting to find out about their family history are now looking back thousands of years to gain an insight in to the origins of their ancestors. We offer AncestrybyDNA™ that will analyse your ethnicity and determine in % terms from the four main population groups. We also offer lineage tests that will determine the origins and heritage from both your maternal and paternal side of the family.
It is possible to determine someone’s origin by his/her family name. Each family name has a long history and is usually based upon either the trade or profession of one’s ancestor or on the place of origin. Many UK and US family names can be traced to a location in England or Scotland. While family name can be used to determine relatedness between people, this should also be backed up by a thorough DNA study.
DDC offers several genetic tests which help people in tracing their genetic origin. One of the tests provides you with a simple and objective description of your ancestral origins. The Ethnicity Test gives you an estimated percentage of ancestry from the four major historical population groups:
- European: Europeans, Middle Easterners and South Asians from the Indian subcontinent including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- East Asian: Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Koreans, Southeast Asians and Pacific Islanders including peoples native to the Philippines.
- African: Peoples from Sub-Saharan Africa such as Nigeria and Congo region.
Let the experts at DDC help you better understand your family name and origins.
Customers who have an interest in discovering their family tree and the heritage of their family are going beyond public records to find out more. DDC offer a range of ancestry services that can look back thousands of years at your maternal and paternal lineage providing information on your haplogroup group and migration patterns. In addition to these popular services we have the AncestrybyDNA™ test that will determine your ethnicity from the four main population groups (European, Asian, Indigenous American and Africa) in % terms.
DNA analysis can be used to find a lost relative. In some cases, people may have been separated at birth and DNA testing can be the only way to find a lost relative. In a DNA test, we compare stretches of DNA from both alleged relatives and look for similarities between them. If the number of similarities is higher than a set threshold for the alleged type of relatedness we can say that the people are related.
One example of a genetic test that DDC uses to establish paternity or biological relationships with lost relatives is a sibling DNA test. A sibling DNA test can accurately determine if two individuals are brothers or sisters sharing a single common parent or both common parents.
DDC uses the power of DNA testing to help people to find lost relatives. If you have such problem, please get in touch and we will do our best to help you.
DNA analysis can be used for the purposes of finding a relative. DDC uses the power of DNA testing to reunite siblings who have been separated at birth, as well as help people in finding relatives which they have lost.
DDC employs a full array of DNA testing and genetic testing services to assist with finding relatives. These tests include the Grandparent DNA Test, Aunt-Uncle DNA Test, Sibling DNA Test, and DNA Reconstruction.
DDC unleashes the power of DNA testing to help people in finding relatives and identifying relationships. If you have such problem, please get in touch and we will do our best to help you.
Fraternal twins happen when two eggs are fertilised by two individual sperms. Fraternal twins can be of either sex, and usually have about 80% DNA in common.
Using the power of DNA testing it is unambiguously possible to discriminate between identical and fraternal twins. At DDC, we can determine between identical or fraternal twins by using a specially designed DNA test.
Genalogy is the analysis of the history of a particular family showing how the different members of the family are related to each other.
At DDC, we use genetic fingerprinting to probe our heredity. Since people inherit the arrangement of their base pairs from their parents, comparing the banding patterns of a child and the alleged parent generates a probability of relatedness; if the two patterns are similar enough (taking into account that only half the DNA is inherited from each parent), then they are probably family. When used alongside more traditional sociological methodologies, genetic fingerprinting can be used to analyse patterns of migration and claims of ethnicity.
Genetic fingerprinting can also tell us about present-day situations. Perhaps the best known use of genetic fingerprinting is in forensic medicine. DNA samples gathered at a crime scene can be compared with the DNA of a suspect to show whether or not he or she was present. Databases of genetic fingerprints are only available from known offenders, so it isn’t yet possible to fingerprint the DNA from a crime scene and then pull out names of probable matches from the general public. But, in the future, this may happen if genetic fingerprints replace more traditional and forgeable forms of identification. In a real case, trading standards agents found that 25% of caviar is bulked up with roe from different categories, the high class equivalent of cheating the consumer by not filling the metaphorical pint glass all the way up to the top. Genetic fingerprinting confirmed that the ‘suspect’ (inferior) caviar was present at the crime scene.
A grandparent DNA test can determine whether a child is biologically related to a set of grandparents. The test is often performed when a child’s alleged father is unavailable for paternity testing and the child’s grandparents have doubts about whether the child is truly related to them.
In order to collect DNA samples we dispatch to our clients a home kit specifically designed to collect DNA samples quickly and efficiently. The home kit consists of three sets of mouth swabs to collect the samples from all the parties involved in DNA testing and envelopes in which to store them. DDC uses state-of-the-art materials for our DNA collection home kit which ensures the most efficient way of collecting and preserving DNA samples. The use of the DNA testing home kit is on the incline. DNA testing in general is on the increase and this is as a direct result of a number of factors:
Births outside marriage grew by 11.25% in the decade between 1991 and 2001. This is important evidence to support the growth figures for the paternity testing market.
There is evidence to suggest that attitudes amongst younger unmarried fathers to paternity tests are radically different to the older generation / married men. In a survey reported in the Scottish Daily Record October 26th 2002, 25% of men under the age of 21 said they would demand a paternity test if a woman claimed they had got her pregnant.
In 2001 there were 238,886 births outside marriage, and around 24,000 births in women younger than 18. The problem of paternity amongst the young is a large and growing issue.
There were 143,818 divorces granted in England and Wales in 2001, compared with 141,135 in 2000 – an increase of 1.9 percent. This is the first time that the number of divorces has increased since 1996.
Seventy percent of all divorces in 2001 were between couples where the marriage had been the first for both parties, compared with 80 percent in 1982. This means more second families and more complex family structures.
A total of 146,914 children aged under 16 were in families where the parents divorced in 2001, of whom just under a quarter were aged under five. This points to substantial growth in the number of children who may grow up with ‘Paternity issues’.
In the early 1970s, fewer than one in 12 of all families with dependent children was a lone mother family. By 2000, this proportion had almost trebled to just less than one in four. More single mothers by definition mean more absent fathers.
Single lone mother families – where the lone mothers have never married – continued to grow between 1996 and 2000. One in nine of all families with dependent children. Dependent children in single lone mother families form one in 11 of all dependent children.
Single lone mothers form two in every five lone parents, while over one third of all dependent children in lone parent families live in single lone mother families.
In order to collect DNA samples in Scotland for genetic and DNA testing, we dispatch our clients a home kit for Scotland specifically designed to collect samples quickly and efficiently. The home kit consists of three sets of mouth swabs to collect the genetic samples from all the parties involved in DNA testing and envelopes to store them.
DDC uses state-of-the-art materials for our Scotland DNA collection home kit which we dispatch to our customers. This ensures the most efficient way of collecting and preserving DNA samples.
To collect DNA samples in the UK, DDC uses a home kit. DNA samples collected by the home kit are very stable and do not degraded during shipment within the UK. Once received by DDC, samples are passed to the laboratory where our highly qualified staff extracts DNA and performs DNA testing. You can be sure that at DDC you will receive the highest standard of service.
There are significant differences in the reliability of home paternity testing companies. Some of the factors contributing to differences between laboratories and between tests are described in this web site. From our inception DDC has provided the most reliable home paternity testing available, so that you can have the highest level of confidence that you are receiving the correct answer to the important question of biological parentage.
DDC leads the industry in guaranteed reliability of testing.
Many extra steps and precautions in testing give our tests a greater degree of reliability.
DDC strives to provide the best possible customer service. Part of that commitment is reflected in our fast turn-around time. For standard cases we normally send out your results within 4 working days from the date we receive your specimens.
You will find our staff extremely helpful. We will be happy to spend as much time as you need to answer your questions. No question is too trivial or too complicated for us to spend the time with you to explain the answer.
Buccal swabs are generally used for specimen collection, so that it is no longer necessary to use blood. Testing is completely confidential.
DDC offers a home paternity test kit for testing relationships between an alleged father and a son or daughter. Our home paternity test kit includes 3 colour coded envelopes for the mother, alleged father, and child, and each envelope contains 2 buccal swabs. The buccal swabs must be wiped on the inside cheek of each applicant to remove the DNA and placed back into the relevant envelope and posted back in the pre-paid postal envelope to our administration department. The samples are then logged onto our internal Patient Relationship Management System and processed at our laboratory. Results from home paternity test kits are normally returned in 4 days.
One of the tests offered by DDC is a twin zygosity DNA test. Identical twins (monozygotic) come from one zygote (fertilized egg) that splits in two. This separation can occurs up to the 12th day of conception, around the time the egg is implanted in the uterus. Identical twins share 100% of their DNA and are the same sex. They have similar hand and foot prints, but different fingerprints and teeth marks!
DDC is a trusted and reliable provider of DNA testing to determine whether two individuals are identical twins or not.
Kits like the home DNA testing kit are frequently used for establishing paternity or biological relationships. This DNA test kit contains a set of swabs that, when used properly, can accurately, quickly and simply determine if two people are related.
DDC has developed the first consumer friendly kit that is exceptionally easy to use. The free DNA testing kit has pink swabs from the mother, blue swabs for the father and yellow for the child.
The swabs are used to gather cheek cells for the subjects to be tested. The genetic material is then extracted from the cells and analyzed. The extra care and precautions we take during the analysis process ensure results that are accurate enough for exacting legal requirements.
The laboratory at DDC is accredited to the highest of standards. The laboratory we use is accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and we perform all your DNA testing twice to ensure that there is no possible chance of error.
The ISO/IEC Guide 25: “General requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories,” has been the internationally recognized basic document for accreditation of laboratories including chemical analysis. The attainment of accreditation is mandatory for some regulatory work areas and frequently is the basis of contracts for analytical work. In 2000 the draft has been replaced by the International Standard ISO/IEC DIS 17025: General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.
The ISO/IEC 17025 standard states that if testing and calibration laboratories comply with ISO/IEC 17025, you also operate in accordance with ISO 9001 or ISO 9002 . However, calibration against ISO 9001 and 9002 does not itself demonstrate the competence of the laboratory to produce technically valid data and results.
Many laboratories will want to get registration to ISO 9000 along with the 17025 accreditation. To address this request, some accreditation bodies and registrars are working out a partnership to use one auditor to perform both the 17025 audit and the ISO 9000 audit simultaneously. Talk to the accreditation body and the registrar to see if they can provide this service.
Legal DNA testing follows a strict chain of custody to ensure the DNA test results are legally defensible in a court of law. The chain of custody documents the following:
- The samples were collected by a neutral third party, such as a doctor, nurse, or a DDC representative.
- The tested parties were appropriately identified at their sample collection appointment(s).
- The samples were protected with tamper tape at the collection site and were securely packaged for shipping and thoroughly inspected for tampering upon delivery to the laboratory.
Legal Fingerprinting can support and enhance the process of identification in complex cases where the individuals on entering the UK did not provide any documentary evidence to prove their identity. In these situations the UK Border Agency may fingerprint the individuals for later use. A legal fingerprinting service will allow the UK Border Agency to reconcile our DNA test reports with that specific individual.
Finding a lost relative is an excellent reason for utilising the latest technology in DNA testing. Quite often, when members of the general public are attempting to re-establish links with lost relatives they utilise DNA testing. DDC has various genetic tests available which can be used to assist in finding a lost relative. Some of these tests include: Grandparent DNA Test, Aunt-Uncle DNA Test, Sibling DNA Test and 1st Cousin Analysis.
A frequent method for establishing paternity or biological relationships with lost relatives is through Sibling DNA testing. Sibling DNA testing can accurately determine if two people are brothers or sisters sharing a single common parent or both common parents.
DDC has re-united families from across the UK who have lost relatives and searched for extended periods of time for some hope in finding them. Navigate here to see if our experts can help you find a lost relative.
DDC offers a low cost paternity test and is accredited by the Department of Constitutional Affairs, enabling DDC to provide legal DNA tests which are admissible in UK Courts of Law.
We also have relationships with various organisations including Families Need Fathers (FNF), which can help fathers with the emotional consequence of finding out that their son or daughter may not be theirs.
Maternal lineage is the line that follows a person’s maternal (mother’s) ancestry. With the exception of a male individual being tested, this line consists entirely of women. It traces the individual’s mother, her mother, her mother’s mother, and so forth back to our shared common maternal ancestor.
DDC frequently receives contact from mothers looking to establish who the father of their child is while still in the hospital. To establish the paternity of a child, a simple, accurate paternity test can be ordered.
One of the most famous websites for more information on Maternity Hospitals is Holles St.
DDC has extracted some information from this maternity hospital for your review;
“Welcome to the website for the National Maternity Hospital, more affectionately known as Holles Street by the people of Ireland. The hospital was founded in 1894 and its purpose is to serve the women of Ireland in matters relating to childbirth, as well as the full range of gynaecological services. Since its foundation in 1894, over 425,000 babies have come into the world with the help of the National Maternity Hospital. The very first of these was born on the 18th March 1894, the day after the hospital was opened. He was a boy, the son of Jane Dooner from a tenement house at No.22 Herbert Street.
Everyone on the staff is here to serve you and hopes to make your experience both rewarding and safe. The hospital welcomes feedback from people who have experienced the services offered as it is only by getting feedback that the hospital can hope to constantly upgrade and improve the quality of services offered.The hospital is probably most clearly identified in the public for the care of women with gynaecological cancer in the country.
I hope that you find your experience in the hospital satisfactory and hope that your memories of your stay will be happy ones”.
Usually employees are entitled to paid time off to keep appointments for antenatal care made on the advice of a registered medical practitioner, registered mid-wife or registered health visitor.
Antenatal care is not restricted to medical examinations. For example, it could also include relaxation classes and parent craft classes.
Except for your employee’s first appointment, your employee must be prepared, if asked, to show you:
- A certificate from a registered medical practitioner, registered midwife or registered health visitor confirming that you are pregnant and
- An appointment card or some other document showing that an appointment has been made.
Your employee should be paid at their normal hourly rate of pay during the period of time off. The rate is calculated by dividing the amount of a week’s pay by the number of hours your employee normally works in a week.
Your employee’s normal working hours will usually be clear from the agreed terms and conditions of their employment, or from the written statement of main employment particulars. If your employee’s working hours vary from week to week, they should be averaged over the previous twelve completed working weeks. Overtime is only counted if it is compulsory under the terms of the employment contract.
If your employee has not completed twelve weeks service, the average should be estimated in the light of what could be reasonably expected from the agreed terms and condition of employment and from the work pattern of any fellow employees in comparable jobs.
If your employee is entitled to payment for time off both under your agreed terms and conditions and under these statutory provisions such entitlements are offset against each other.
DDC often receive calls from mothers and fathers that during maternity leave to raise questions as to the biological relationship of their child. This, in many cases, is resolved with a simple DNA test for prenatal usage.
Maternity pay is the unalienable right of a woman to receive payment when she takes care of a new borne baby or is on maternity leave. By law in the UK, all employed women should get maternity pay from their employers. At DDC, we provide guidance to women about maternity pay and should you require any information or assistance we will do our utmost to help you.
The following rules apply to maternity pay:
Usually employees are entitled to paid time off to keep appointments for antenatal care made on the advice of a registered medical practitioner, registered midwife or registered health visitor.
Employees should receive maternity pay at their normal hourly rate of pay during the period of time off. The rate is calculated by dividing the amount of a week’s pay by the number of hours the employee normally works in a week.
The employee’s normal working hours will usually be clear from the agreed terms and conditions of their employment, or from the written statement of main employment particulars. If the employee’s working hours vary from week to week, they should be averaged over the previous twelve completed working weeks. Overtime is only counted if it is compulsory under the terms of the employment contract.
If the employee has not completed twelve weeks service, the average should be estimated in the light of what could be reasonably expected from the agreed terms and condition of employment and from the work pattern of any fellow employees in comparable jobs.
If the employee is entitled to payment for time off both under the agreed terms and conditions and under these statutory provisions such entitlements are offset against each other.
DDC is a trusted and ethical champion of maternity rights in the UK. The maternity right is an important issue for UK mothers and we want to make sure that our clients get the best help if they need it.
DDC is working together with a number of maternity rights organisations in the UK and we will be happy to assist you in getting in touch with them.
There are a number of maternity rights for women given by the law. Among those the most important ones are the right of all pregnant women:
- To take time off work for ante-natal care
- The right of all pregnant women to work in a safe environment
- The right of all pregnant women to claim unfair dismissal if dismissed because of pregnancy.
At DDC, we provide guidance to women about maternity rights and maternity pay and should you require any information or assistance we will do our utmost to help you.
In the UK the number of people entering the field of Midwifery is growing. At DDC, we receive an increased number of calls from students and already qualified midwifes who are asked by their patients about the paternity of their child.
At DDC we appreciate that in many of these cases the mother is already under duress from the new arrival into the world and recovering from the post-natal process, which sometimes includes post-natal depression. These mothers do not want to then be faced with having to take the child to the local GP for a DNA test.
DDC offer a broad-range of services and the one that is dedicated to the midwifery profession is peace of mind DNA testing. This is the ability to use a “home” kit in the comfort of the mother’s own home, together with the alleged father complete the test.
Like many of our tests, the peace of mind test results are available in 7-10 business days. DDC has the support of Midwifes online and has played a vital part in increasing public awareness amongst the midwifery profession.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The NHS (National Health Service) does not provide free paternity DNA testing or DNA relationship testing. Whilst many services are on offer from the NHS, DNA testing for biological relations is not available.
DDC provide paternity and family relationship testing for both peace of mind reasons and for legal purposes such as immigration, birth certificate changes, inheritance claims and child disputes.
You can order a DNA testing kit at no obligation on our website that will be sent by 1st class post. The kit contents include full details on the test you require, swabs for DNA collection and simple step-by-step instructions on collecting DNA samples.
Fetal DNA in a mother’s blood sample is expertly isolated and compared to a blood sample taken from the alleged father.
DDC is a trusted and ethical champion of the paternal right. The paternal right is an important issue for fathers and we want to make sure that our clients get the best help if they need it. DDC is working together with a number of paternal rights organisations and we will be happy to assist you in getting in touch with them.
The paternal right can easily be established through a DNA relationship test. Please click if you would like more information about a DNA paternity test to resolve your paternal rights.
DDC is a leading provider of testing for paternity in the UK and the rest of Europe. Paternity is a very important issue considering that 15-20% fathers in the UK raise someone else’s children. Every year, more than 30,000 paternity testing cases are performed in the UK.
DDC is the company you can trust to determine paternity in your case. Our accurate process provides us with a 100% proven record for results standing up within a the UK court system. DDC tests 16 genetic locations and independently runs every paternity test two times to ensure that your results are unquestionably 99.998% accurate.
Paternity DNA testing is now widely available on the internet; there are 2 main streams of Paternity DNA Testing:
- Peace of Mind paternity test – this test can be carried out at home and requires no medical expertise: a swab is simply rubbed on the inside cheek of the client and placed back into the envelope provided. Once received at our lab, analysis is performed and DNA extracted.
- Legal Paternity DNA test – this test has to be carried under a controlled environment, usually by one of our panel Doctors. The Doctor must verify the identity of the client via photo ID (i.e Passport). The swabs and samples are taken in the same way, but are then placed into a tamper proof bag and sent directly to our laboratory. A full chain of custody is recorded, preventing possible contamination, confusion, or loss. These reports are very accurate and can be used in a UK court of law. For more information on paternity DNA testing and legal paternity DNA testing navigate to our website.
Paternity Rights is a subject that is often debated. The paternity rights can quite easily be established through a simple DNA relationship test. Please click if you would like more information about a DNA paternity test to resolve your paternity rights.
Below are articles to help you in your search for information on paternity rights:
ON-LINE ISSUES FOR LIVE ART WEB SITES … 7.1 The Paternity Right. 7.1.1 The Paternity Right is not granted automatically … View Article
SUMMARY OF RESPONSES TO THE CONSULTATION PAPER ON MORAL RIGHTS FOR PERFORMERS (PDF) … the responses reflected this. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PATERNITY RIGHT Circumstances in which the right would apply … be sufficient to satisfy the paternity right, and urged that this be … View Article
Moral Rights for Performers (PDF) … general scope (2.5-2.9)C the circumstances in which the paternity right should apply, in particular as regards … services (2.15).C whether the paternity right would need to be modified … View Article
DTI Employment Relations – Paternity: leave and pay EMPLOYMENT LEGISLATION. PATERNITY – LEAVE AND PAY. A basic summary (PL514 Rev 1) The Government is committed to helping working parents. … the employee has a contractual right to paternity leave as well as the statutory right, he may take … couple adopt jointly. A right to paternity leave and pay for the … View Article
Children’s rights … Parentage, especially paternity. Misattributed paternity. Children’s rights. Paternity tests for peace of mind … to identify the right man. An unofficial paternity test won’t necessarily … View Article
Parental rights at work … They have the right to:- paid and unpaid maternity leave. paid paternity leave. paid and … entitled to statutory paternity pay for their paternity leave. Statutory paternity pay is … View Article
House of Lords – Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform – Fourteenth Report … The new right to paternity leave has been the subject of extensive consultation … This new section establishes the right to paternity leave when a child is newly placed for adoption … View Article
Introduction (PDF) … the option of introducing a right forworking fathers to take paternity leave paid at the same flat … for fathers to have a. right to paid paternity leave for the …
The Northern Ireland Assembly – … Statutory paternity pay and statutory adoption pay. Statutory paternity pay. Statutory adoption pay … entitlement to statutory paternity pay shall not affect any right of a person in …
THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1998 AND DETERMINING PATERNITY (PDF) … THE HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1998 AND DETERMINING PATERNITYRe O & J (Paternity: Blood Tests) … the enforcement of aman’s right to have his paternity proven and recognised; they are … View Article
la/7274 … pay and leave, and introduces the right to paid paternity leave for the first time.However, it … some universities provide maternity and paternity leave arrangements equal to, or an … View Article
“Knowledge is bliss”- Towards a society without paternity surprises … should move “towards a society without paternity surprises”, something doesn’t become ethical simply … cases of surprising paternity! Has a person the right to prevent someone … View Article
The Employment (Northern Ireland) Order 2002 … It should be noted that the right to reproduce the text of Statutory Instruments does not extend … entitlement to statutory paternity pay shall not affect any right of a person … View Article
Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 … Statutory Rule 2002 No. 377. Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 … Incidents of the right to return after paternity leave … View Article
UNISON the public service union – Resources … April 2003 that gives the right to leave and pay to … were designated paternity leave; high wage compensation; flexibility in using leave and advertising the new right. If …
Flexible working: (PDF) … Flexible working: the right to applyA basic summary New Employment Legislation2Introductionom … below).New right to paid paternity leaveA new right to paternity leave and pay …
UNISON the public service union – Bargaining support … April 2003 that gives the right to leave and pay to … were designated paternity leave; high wage compensation; flexibility in using leave and advertising the new right. If … View Article
Employment briefing (PDF) … Act introduced a new right to two weeks paid Paternity Leave. This right arises on the birth of … If there is a contractual right to Paternity Leave, the employee can …
Clifton Ingram: employment update: maternity leave etc. … paternity leave, adoption leave, parental leave … Paternity Leave Pay – the lesser of 90% of the employee’s average weekly earnings or £100 per week. The employee has the right …View Article
DTI Employment Relations – consultation on draft regulations Work & Parents: competitiveness and choice. Consultation on draft regulations (continued) Maternity and parental leave. Paternity and adoption leave. Paternity and adoption pay. Key features of the new schemes. 9. … that the above approach means that the right to paternity leave and pay needs to be drawn slightly … Government intends that the right to paternity leave and pay will not … View Article
There are a number of paternity rights for men given by the law in the UK. Among those, the most important of the paternity rights is the right of all working fathers for paternity leave and pay.
The right to paternity leave and Statutory Paternity Pay (SPP) allows an eligible employee to take paid leave to care for his baby or to support the mother following birth. He can take either a one or two-week consecutive paternity leave and during this time may be entitled to Statutory Paternity Pay.
An employee is eligible for paternity leave if he has or expects to have responsibility for his baby’s upbringing and is either or both
- The biological father of his baby
- The mother’s husband or partner
At DDC, we provide guidance to UK fathers about their paternity rights, and a simple DNA test can provide the proof of a biological relationship. Should you require any information or assistance we will do our utmost to help you.
A paternity test is a specific DNA test designed to prove or disprove the paternity of an alleged father. DDC, a leading biotech company, provides paternity tests to the UK community. DDC provides DNA and paternity tests in the UK to individuals, as well as corporate entities such as county councils and solicitors nationwide. Our accurate resulting process provides us with a 100% track record for results upheld within a UK court. As a recognised and reputable company offering paternity tests in the UK, we encourage you to consider the following:
Paternity Testing is too important to trust your future to a company which is not recognised in the UK.
To arrange paternity testing in Northern Ireland, please contact DDC, Europe’s leading expert on DNA and paternity testing. Northern Ireland also has its own Northern Ireland Child Support Agency which is subject to the Child Support (NI) Order 1991 and Child Support (NI) Order 1995.
See also the Northern Ireland Office website, the Northern Ireland Public Service website, and the Northern Ireland Court Service website for further information on paternity testing in Northern Ireland.
DDC, a leading biotech company, provides paternity testing to the UK community and the rest of Europe. Paternity testing determines whether an individual is a biological father. Every year, more than 30,000 paternity testing cases are performed in the UK alone.
DDC is the company you can trust to perform your paternity testing in the UK.
Paternity is an important social, demographic, and psychological issue. DDC is the UK’s leading company that provides paternity UK testing services to the general public. DDC provides paternity tests both to individuals and corporate entities, such as county councils and solicitors nationwide.
Our accurate resulting process provides us with a 100% track record for results standing up within a UK court. DDC tests 16 genetic locations and independently runs every paternity test twice to ensure that your results are unquestionably 99.998% accurate.
As a recognised and reputable UK paternity company, we encourage you to consider the following: paternity UK testing is too important to trust your future to a company which is not recognised in the UK.
DNA analysis can be used to test relationships between people. A relationship test can give answers whether two (or more) individuals are related and even tell how many generations ago two family branches had split.
DDC offers several DNA tests which can be used as relationship tests and help people in establishing relationships or tracing their genetic origin:
- “Peace of Mind” Paternity Test – Quickly and easily determine the paternity of a child.
- Sibling DNA Test – For two individuals who want to determine if they share the same father and mother.
- Grandparent DNA Test – Used to establish a relationship between an individual and an alleged grandparent.
- Aunt-Uncle DNA Test – Used to help determine if twins are either fraternal or identical.
It is possible to determine someone’s origin by his/her surname. Scottish surnames have a long history and usually are based on either the trade or profession of one’s ancestor or on the place of origin. Many UK and US surnames can be traced to a specific location in Scotland. Scottish surnames can be used to determine relatedness between people, however this should also be backed up by a thorough DNA study.
DDC offers several genetic tests which can help people in tracing their genetic origins.
A siblingship test can help two individuals verify whether they are full or half siblings. This type of test is often performed when an alleged father is unavailable for paternity testing and alleged siblings want to know if they have one or both parents in common.
To collect DNA samples, DDC uses a swab test which is included in a free home paternity kit. DNA samples collected by the swab test are very stable and do not degraded during shipment. We use state-of-the-art materials for our DNA collection home kit which ensures the most efficient way of collecting and preserving DNA samples. Once received by DDC, samples are passed to the laboratory where our highly qualified staff extracts DNA and performs DNA testing.
You can be sure that at DDC you will get the highest standard of service. If you would like to order your free home paternity kit to test DNA, feel free to order online.
DDC can determine the possibility of your twins being identical or fraternal.
Did you know that Twins are formed in the following way?:
- The developing embryo begins to split into identical twins but then stops part way leaving the partially separated egg to mature into a conjoined fetus.
- They are more often female than male (ratio of 3:1)
- They occur as often as once in every 40,000 births, but only once in every 200,000 live births.
- Are more likely to occur in Africa or India than in China or the United States.
- May be caused by genetic and environmental conditions which are responsible for the failure of twins to separate after the 13th day after fertilization.
- 1/50,000 to 1/100,000 are conjoined twins.
- 70% are female – even though monozygotic twins are more frequently male than female.
- 40% are stillborn
- 75% are stillborn or die within 24 hours.
Y-chromosome comparison is performed to determine whether two or more males are biologically related through their paternal line (father’s side of the family). This test directly compares male DNA with another man’s DNA to verify if they are related via a paternal line.