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Frequently Asked Questions

Get answers to our most-asked questions here. Have more? Contact us for a free consultation.

Lifestyle

GPS Origins® Ancestry

Do you share or sell my private DNA information?

Customers trust us with their most sensitive genetic information—and we take that trust seriously. DNA results and personally-identifiable information are kept completely confidential and are not sold to or shared with a third party (except in connection with a merger/sale of our company), unless we are legally compelled to do so. We may use aggregate anonymous data (information that cannot be traced back to a specific individual) for research and marketing purposes and to improve our services. Respecting our customers’ privacy is at the heart of what we do.

See our Privacy Policy

What is included in the GPS Origins kit?
Your test kit includes an order form, instruction manual, four (4) buccal (cheek) swabs, a DNA Sample envelope and a bar-coded return envelope.
What is the GPS Origins DNA test for ancestry?
GPS Origins test allows you to trace your DNA back around 1,000 years, or more, to the place where your unique DNA signature began.

The test uses 41 global gene pools to calculate the genetic signature of your autosomal DNA. For example: Fennoscandia 19%, Southern France 14%, Orkney Islands 20%, and so on. Next, it compares your unique DNA signature to 1,000+ populations all over the world (who we know have lived in the same location for a substantial period) to locate where your personal DNA signature began. In some cases, GPS Origins traces your DNA to the village or town level. Finally, it calculates two genetic lineages by tracing the migration routes of your DNA, with pinpoints showing the last three places where your DNA underwent significant changes. The final pinpoint is time-stamped.

How does the GPS Origins DNA test for ancestry work?
The test looks at the genetic composition of your DNA—your DNA signature—and compares it to a database of over 10,000 signatures from 1,000+ populations with known geographic locations to identify the place where it began about 1,000 years ago.

We have identified 41 gene pools around the world. Each human population is made up of a mixture of these gene pools. In the distant past, individual migrations were rare. Genetic mixing tended to occur when large groups of people moved from one area to another, through invasion or mass migration. As the incoming gene pool mixed with the local one, a new genetic signature was created across the whole population.

The GPS Origins test assumes that your DNA signature is unique to you but shares many characteristics with the populations or tribes from which it originated. By comparing your DNA to the signature mixes within different populations, GPS Origins can pinpoint the origin of your DNA.

The algorithm works out the differences, or genetic ‘distance’ between your DNA and the DNA population signatures in our database, and converts them to geographic distances. Then, like a car satellite navigation system, it uses the distances to calculate the coordinates of your DNA origin, which marks the spot where your DNA most recently changed at the population level. It occurs when two different populations came together and created your DNA signature.

Using a similar method, GPS Origins then works backward to find two more points and plots the journey to where your DNA was mixed. It repeats this calculation for each element of your parental DNA.

What does the GPS Origins report include?

Your report presents mixture proportions from 41 possible gene pools that cover the whole world as well as the history of the primary gene pools. Your report also shows the geographical origins of your DNA, which could be a country or as close to the nearest town. Your DNA signature was created when two different population groups mixed and created a new genetic signature—the one that you ultimately inherited.

You also see two migration routes for your DNA—one for each side of your family—back to where it came from, which may originate up to 10,000 years ago. Finally, GPS Origins dates the age of your DNA signature corresponding to when it last underwent a substantial change at the population level.

GPS Origins is a great tool to help you research your family tree!

How does this test differ from other DNA tests for ancestry?

Other DNA tests for ancestry provide a limited ethnic composition at a regional or country level. For example, they might indicate 33% East Asian, 40% sub-Saharan African and 27% European.

GPS Origins goes beyond these broad ethnic classifications to identify your ancestral origins to a precise geographic location using an unprecedented number of gene pools and reference populations.

What kind of technology does this ancestry test use?

This is an Autosomal DNA test, also known as a SNP (pronounced ‘snip’) test. It extracts markers from your Y-Chromosome DNA, X-Chromosome DNA and Mitochondrial DNA.

There are four types of DNA:

  • Y-DNA, which only occurs on the Y-chromosome, is passed down from father to son through the generations, and is only inherited by males.
  • X-DNA, which only occurs on the X-chromosome, is inherited by women from both parents, and by men from the mother.
  • Mitochondrial DNA (also known as mitochondria or mtDNA) is passed down through the maternal line, and is inherited by sons and daughters, but only passed on by females. It is the least changeable type of DNA, found outside the cell nucleus, not on a chromosome.
  • Autosomal DNA can be inherited from hundreds of thousands of your ancestors through the ages. Autosomal DNA can be found in 22 chromosomes, and provides 90% of your DNA.

This test examines nearly 80,000 of your autosomal markers (SNPs) and compares them with the distinctive mutations in 41 gene pools across 1,000+ reference populations. This pinpoints the places and times where your DNA last changed.

How accurate is the test?

The level of accuracy depends on your family history. If your parents are from the same place and share relatively homogeneous gene pools, the test can trace both their DNA signatures to their country of origin 81% of the time. GPS Origins correctly predicts at least one parent to the correct country of origin 96% of the time. If both your parents are unmixed, GPS Origins can predict migration pinpoints to the correct country 90% of the time.

In a study of people from across the world, the migration routes generated from the GPS Origins algorithm predicted continental origins with 98% accuracy, assigned 83% of the individuals to their country of origin, and, where applicable, 66% of them to their regional locations.

If your ancestors were from Western Europe  and your parents came from the same region, not moving far from the place they came from, the test will place your DNA signature within 50 miles of its true origin, and often closer.

Your results show the origin as a pinpoint on a map. Any margin of error appears as a circle around the point. the smaller the circle, the more accurate the result. The accuracy also depends on the size of the reference population in a given area; the larger the reference group, the more accurate the results.

Note that the results do not necessarily predict your residential address, but rather, the broader origin of your DNA’s signature, showing the last three (3) places where the signature was significantly modified.

If I already did a DNA test, why should I order GPS Origins?

The GPS Origins DNA test includes many unique markers that cannot be found in other commercial tests.

Will GPS Origins tell me where my ancestors originated?

GPS Origins ancestry test does not report the geographic origins of individual ancestors, but the geographical origin of your DNA. You can be certain that some of your ancestors came from these places within the period indicated.

How does the GPS Origins DNA test help me with my family history?

Discovering your genetic origin will help you answer the question of where you are from beyond the written record of your family history. It can help you open up further avenues of research and you can learn more about the lives of your ancestors at the point in history when your DNA began.

Your ‘ancestral family’ is much larger than your immediate family and you may be able to find out much more about their lives and culture with GPS Origins.

Because this ancestry testing provides an accurate location, you can discover more about the place where your distant ancestors originated. This test helps you use historical and archaeological research to find out about the time and conditions in which your distant ancestors lived.

Can I use my GPS Origins test results to match with possible relatives?

GPS Origins shows the origin of your DNA and those of users who choose to share it. These results are indicative of tribal DNA membership, but not necessarily direct familial relationships.

What if my GPS Origins report doesn’t agree with my family history?

In the case that one of your parents is of mixed origins because your grandparents are from two different places (e.g., England and Greece), GPS Origins migration lines for that parent would be traced along the middle migration paths of your grandparents (e.g., Hungary). This could be revealed via a larger circle (greater radius) around a stopping point, reflecting higher uncertainty in this area. GPS Origins is the story of your DNA, not necessarily of people. Your (and their) DNA may indeed have come from a region that no one remembers existed.

Why would my test results be different from my siblings’?

GPS Origins reports the results for two lineages (your parents) which may indicate your parental origins that were inherited from your maternal and paternal grandparents, and so on down the maternal and paternal line.

If your grandparents and parents are of mixed ancestry, the test identifies the most dominant origins, which may differ between siblings because they inherited different genetic material from each parent.

For example, imagine that your parents have hazel and brown eyes. You and your sibling(s) may have blue, hazel, or brown eyes because each one of you inherited a different trait from each parent.

So which sibling’s GPS Origins results are the most correct? They all are correct because each tells a story of different ancestral traits from your family. Despite coming from the same parents, the genetic traits of you and your sibling(s) may show the different path your ancestors have chosen. Combining sibling results together would yield your complete family story. The only siblings with the same result would be identical twins because they have identical DNA.

What is a Gene Pool?

A Gene Pool, also referred to as Ancestral Origin, is the collective set of genetic information within a distinct region where populations had limited interactions with populations from outside the group for up to about 20,000 or 60,000 years. So far, 41 human gene pools around the world have been identified with each human population made up of a mixture of several such gene pools. In the distant past, genetic mixing tended to occur when large groups of people moved from one area to another, through invasion or mass migration. The GPS Origins test pinpoints the origin of your DNA by comparing it to the signature mixtures in different populations. Your personalized report shows the percentages of DNA you inherited and provides you with the history of the top three Gene Pools.

View Gene Pool References

What is a Reference Population?

Also referred to as a Study Base, a reference population is a defined, representative sample of individuals during a specific time range used to establish norms for reference ranges. GPS Origins uses 1,000+ reference populations in its database when calculating your results. This large number of reference populations, obtained from publicly referenced datasets, along with the 41 gene pools helps deliver the accuracy in your GPS Origins results.

View Reference Populations

What is a Migration Pattern?

A Migration Pattern is the path your DNA traveled over the past 2,000-4,000 years. The GPS Origins test traces your migration route back to where it originated and dates the age of your DNA signature. The test provides this information for both your parental lineages, indicating where your DNA began. Your results are detailed in a report that reveals a vibrant picture of where and how your ancestors lived, and the conditions that led them to migrate. It also contains maps illustrating the two most important migration journeys and describes how your ancestors’ circumstances changed as they crossed continents to find better lives. Note: The GPS Origins test is an Autosomal (SNP) test that is not gender specific. Although both Migration Patterns represent your Maternal and Paternal DNA route, we cannot differentiate which route is specifically your parents’ individual route at this time.

What are the circles surrounding the pinpoints on my map and why are they different sizes?

The circle surrounding each data point represents a margin of error (or range). The smaller the circle, the smaller the percentage of error. 

What if a pinpoint on my map sits over a body of water?

This test calculates positions according to your DNA, gene pools, and over 862 reference populations. Occasionally, your genetic location may reside over a pond or river, but don’t be alarmed, it doesn’t mean your DNA has originated in the water but rather that nowadays the river is running very close to the region where your DNA originated. Moreover, since our test establishes a location according to genetic proximity of your DNA and its similarities to various reference populations – you will also see a circle surrounding your data point, which represents a margin of error (or range) where your DNA may have formed.

How can I tell which migration route corresponds to my paternal line and which corresponds to my maternal line?

Because this test is autosomal, paternal and maternal lines cannot be distinguished by name. But you can be sure one is your maternal line and one is your paternal line. Most of our customers are able to deduce which is which based on knowledge of their own family histories.

Is my raw-data file be available? How do I retrieve it?

Yes, your GPS Origins DNA raw data file is available to you! To download, log in and go to My Account. You will see three (3) tabs in My AccountOrders, Results and Account Details. Simply click on Results and locate your test  in your results listings. In the status column, if your results are ready, you will see a link that says My Results and also a link that says Download Data. When you click the Download Data link, your download will begin.

HomeDNA™ Starter Ancestry

What is the difference between the HomeDNA Starter test and other tests for ancestry?

This test connects your past with your present! First we determine your basic ancestry and show you which regions you’re from within the following population groups: European, Indigenous American, East-Asian, Sub-Saharan African ; then in the second part of the test, we tell you where in today’s world you can find populations groups with which you share the most genetic similarity. 

Does this test tell me which specific countries I’m from?

DNA from your Past

The Starter DNA test for ancestry first gives you percentages from your past for each of these four regions: 

  1. Europe
  2. Indigenous American
  3. East-Asian
  4. Sub-Saharan African

DNA from your Present

The second part of the test then shows you the population groups from the present where DNA similar to yours is most prevalent. This is specific down to the country level.

Do you share or sell my private DNA information?

Customers trust us with their most sensitive genetic information—and we take that trust seriously. DNA results and personally-identifiable information are kept completely confidential and are not sold to or shared with a third party (except in connection with a merger/sale of our company), unless we are legally compelled to do so. We may use aggregate anonymous data (information that cannot be traced back to a specific individual) for research and marketing purposes and to improve our services. Respecting our customers’ privacy is at the heart of what we do.

See our Privacy Policy 

Healthy Weight

What genes are analyzed with the Healthy Weight test?

Our lab analyzes genetic markers (SNPS) that have been shown through external research to be related to various ways the human body processes food, nutrients and physical exercise.

How long does it take to get my results?

Typical turnaround time for getting results is 6 weeks, once samples arrive at the lab. We will email you as soon as your report is ready.

Do I ever need to be re-tested?

No. There is no need to retake the HomeDNA Healthy Weight test as your genes will never change. In terms of testing DNA, your DNA is the same throughout your entire life. This is a once-in-a-lifetime investment that takes away the guesswork when it comes to dieting and exercise.

What information is included in my report?

Your HomeDNA Healthy Weight report contains nutrition and exercise recommendations specific to your genetic test results (i.e., your DNA). The nutrition information discusses in easy language how much protein, carbohydrates and fat you should consume daily, which nutrients for which you may be at risk of deficiency, and which foods are good sources of those nutrients. You will learn how your body responds to fat, protein and carbohydrate intake in relation to how you use them for energy, and thus, how best to eat in order to lose body fat.

Your HomeDNA Healthy Weight report also indicates how likely you are to use fat for energy during different types of exercise. It will give you specific information about exercises that are best aligned with your genetic test results: which types, at what intensity, for how long, and how often.

Do you test for any serious inherited diseases?

No. HomeDNA Healthy Weight focuses solely on those genes that are related to the body’s ability to process food, nutrients and physical exercise. Any DNA test performed to detect predictors for disease should be interpreted by a physician or a certified genetic counselor.

How dependable are the results?

The algorithm used for this test is based on the latest  science. Please see our “Resources” tab below for links to studies. 

We have laboratory protocols that ensure very high accuracy, and so you can be sure your test has been processed correctly. Your genes play a big role in your body composition but it’s also important to realize lifestyle and diet play a significant role as well. 

Are there studies to back up the science used for this test?

Yes. The algorithm used for this test is based on the latest science.

WEIGHT LOSS ABILITY

Hum Hered. 2013;75(2-4):160-74. doi: 10.1159/000353181. Epub 2013 Sep 27.
Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look AHEAD trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24081232
McCaffery JM, Papandonatos GD, Huggins GS, Peter I, Erar B, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Lipkin EW, Kitabchi AE, Wagenknecht LE, Wing RR; Genetic Subgroup of Look AHEAD; Look AHEAD Research Group

Diabetes. 2012 Nov;61(11):3005-11. doi: 10.2337/db11-1799. Epub 2012 Aug 13.
FTO genotype and 2-year change in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight-loss diets.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22891219
Zhang X, Qi Q, Zhang C, Smith SR, Hu FB, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Qi L.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Dec;37(12):1545-52. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.54. Epub 2013 Apr 3.
FTO predicts weight regain in the Look AHEAD clinical trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23628854
McCaffery JM1, Papandonatos GD, Huggins GS, Peter I, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Hudnall GE, Lipkin EW, Kitabchi AE, Wagenknecht LE, Wing RR; Genetic Subgroup of Look AHEAD; Look AHEAD Research Group

Diabetes. 2010 Mar;59(3):747-50. doi: 10.2337/db09-1050. Epub 2009 Dec 22.
Gene variants of TCF7L2 influence weight loss and body composition during lifestyle intervention in a population at risk for type 2 diabetes.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20028944
Haupt A, Thamer C, Heni M, Ketterer C, Machann J, Schick F, Machicao F, Stefan N, Claussen CD, Häring HU, Fritsche A, Staiger H.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1129-36. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.038125. Epub 2012 Oct 3.
TCF7L2 genetic variants modulate the effect of dietary fat intake on changes in body composition during a weight-loss intervention
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23034957
Mattei J, Qi Q, Hu FB, Sacks FM, Qi L.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):392-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.072066. Epub 2013 Dec 11.
Variants in glucose- and circadian rhythm-related genes affect the response of energy expenditure to weight-loss diets
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24335056
Mirzaei K, Xu M, Qi Q, de Jonge L, Bray GA, Sacks F, Qi L

Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb;35(2):363-6. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1328. Epub 2011 Dec 16.
Genetic predictors of weight loss and weight regain after intensive lifestyle modification, metformin treatment, or standard care in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22179955
Delahanty LM, Pan Q, Jablonski KA, Watson KE, McCaffery JM, Shuldiner A, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Florez JC, Franks PW; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.

Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6.
Association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12145174
Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16.
The PPAR-gamma P12A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12145174
Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC.

Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16.
Interaction between a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism and dietary fat intake in relation to body mass.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14506127
Memisoglu A, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Manson JE, De Vivo I, Willett WC, Hunter DJ.

FOOD – PROTEIN UTILIZATION

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Dec;37(12):1545-52. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.54. Epub 2013 Apr 3.
FTO predicts weight regain in the Look AHEAD clinical trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23628854
McCaffery JM1, Papandonatos GD, Huggins GS, Peter I, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Hudnall GE, Lipkin EW, Kitabchi AE, Wagenknecht LE, Wing RR; Genetic Subgroup of Look AHEAD; Look AHEAD Research Group.

FOOD – FAT UTILIZATION

Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb;35(2):363-6. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1328. Epub 2011 Dec 16.
Genetic predictors of weight loss and weight regain after intensive lifestyle modification, metformin treatment, or standard care in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23628854
Delahanty LM, Pan Q, Jablonski KA, Watson KE, McCaffery JM, Shuldiner A, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Florez JC, Franks PW; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group.

Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6.
Association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12145174
Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16.
The PPAR-gamma P12A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12630956
Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC.

Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Nov 15;12(22):2923-9. Epub 2003 Sep 23.
Interaction between a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism and dietary fat intake in relation to body mass.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14506127
Memisoglu A, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Manson JE, De Vivo I, Willett WC, Hunter DJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1129-36. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.038125. Epub 2012 Oct 3.
TCF7L2 genetic variants modulate the effect of dietary fat intake on changes in body composition during a weight-loss intervention.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=2303495
Mattei J, Qi Q, Hu FB, Sacks FM, Qi L.

Circulation. 2006 May 2;113(17):2062-70. Epub 2006 Apr 24.
Dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids modulates effect of apolipoprotein A5 gene on plasma fasting triglycerides, remnant lipoprotein concentrations, and lipoprotein particle size: the Framingham Heart Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16636175
Lai CQ, Corella D, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Adiconis X, Zhu Y, Parnell LD, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.

Clin Genet. 2005 Aug;68(2):152-4.
A polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with weight loss after short-term diet.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15996212
Aberle J, Evans D, Beil FU, Seedorf U.

J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Feb;85(2):119-28. Epub 2007 Jan 9.
APOA5 gene variation modulates the effects of dietary fat intake on body mass index and obesity risk in the Framingham Heart Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17211608
Corella D, Lai CQ, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Manning AK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.

J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):380-5. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.130344. Epub 2011 Jan 5.
APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21209257
Sánchez-Moreno C, Ordovás JM, Smith CE, Baraza JC, Lee YC, Garaulet M.

Circulation. 2013 Mar 26;127(12):1283-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000586. Epub 2013 Feb 27.
Variants in glucose- and circadian rhythm-r elated genes affect the response of energy expenditure to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS LOST Trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24335056
Mirzaei K, Xu M, Qi Q, de Jonge L, Bray GA, Sacks F, Qi L.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):392-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.072066. Epub 2013 Dec 11.
Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=23446828
Xu M, Qi Q, Liang J, Bray GA, Hu FB, Sacks FM, Qi L.

FOOD – CARB UTILIZATION

Circulation. 2011 Aug 2;124(5):563-71. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.025767. Epub 2011 Jul 11.
Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21747052
Qi Q, Bray GA, Smith SR, Hu FB, Sacks FM, Qi L.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN B9 – FOLATE TENDENCY

Proc Nutr Soc. 2014 Feb;73(1):47-56. doi: 10.1017/S0029665113003613. Epub 2013 Oct 17.
MTHFR 677TT genotype and disease risk: is there a modulating role for B-vitamins?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24131523
Reilly R, McNulty H1, Pentieva K, Strain JJ, Ward M.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN A TENDENCY

FASEB J. 2009 Apr;23(4):1041-53. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-121962. Epub 2008 Dec 22.
Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding beta-carotene 15,15’-monoxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19103647
Leung WC, Hessel S, Méplan C, Flint J, Oberhauser V, Tourniaire F, Hesketh JE, von Lintig J, Lietz G.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN B6TENDENCY

Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Apr;84(4):477-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.02.011. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
Genome-wide association study of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine blood concentrations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19303062
Tanaka T, Scheet P, Giusti B, Bandinelli S, Piras MG, Usala G, Lai S, Mulas A, Corsi AM, Vestrini A, So i F, Gori AM, Abbate R, Guralnik J, Singleton A, Abecasis GR, Schlessinger D, Uda M, Ferrucci L.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN B12TENDENCY

Nat Genet. 2008 Oct;40(10):1160-2. doi: 10.1038/ng.210. Epub 2008 Sep 7.
Common variants of FUT2 are associated with plasma vitamin B12 levels.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18776911
Hazra A, Kraft P, Selhub J, Giovannucci EL, Thomas G, Hoover RN, Chanock SJ, Hunter DJ.

Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Apr;84(4):477-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.02.011. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
Genome-wide association study of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine blood concentrations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19303062
Tanaka T, Scheet P, Giusti B, Bandinelli S, Piras MG, Usala G, Lai S, Mulas A, Corsi AM, Vestrini A, So i F, Gori AM, Abbate R, Guralnik J, Singleton A, Abecasis GR, Schlessinger D, Uda M, Ferrucci L.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN C TENDENCY

Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug;92(2):375-82. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29438. Epub 2010 Jun 2.
Genetic variation at the SLC23A1 locus is associated with circulating concentrations of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C : evidence from 5 independent studies with >15,000 participants.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20519558
Timpson NJ, Forouhi NG, Brion MJ, Harbord RM, Cook DG, Johnson P, McConnachie A, Morris RW, Rodriguez S, Luan J, Ebrahim S, Padmanabhan S, Watt G, Bruckdorfer KR, Wareham NJ, Whincup PH, Chanock S, Sattar N, Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G.

NUTRIENTS – VITAMIN D TENDENCY

Lancet. 2010 Jul 17;376(9736):180-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60588-0. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20541252
Wang TJ, Zhang F, Richards JB, Kestenbaum B, van Meurs JB, Berry D, Kiel DP, Streeten EA, Ohlsson C, Koller DL, Peltonen L,Cooper JD, O’Reilly PF, Houston DK, Glazer NL, Vandenput L, Peacock M, Shi J, Rivadeneira F, McCarthy MI, Anneli P, de Boer IH,Mangino M, Kato B, Smyth DJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Burke GL, Goodarzi M, Cheung CL, Wolf M, Rice K, Goltzman D, Hidiroglou N, Ladouceur M, Wareham NJ, Hocking LJ, Hart D, Arden NK, Cooper C, Malik S, Fraser WD, Hartikainen AL, Zhai G, Macdonald HM, Forouhi NG, Loos RJ, Reid DM, Hakim A, Dennison E, Liu Y, Power C, Stevens HE, Jaana L, Vasan RS, Soranzo N, Bojunga J,Psaty BM, Lorentzon M, Foroud T, Harris TB, Hofman A, Jansson JO, Cauley JA, Uitterlinden AG, Gibson Q, Järvelin MR, Karasik D, Siscovick DS, Econs MJ, Kritchevsky SB, Florez JC, Todd JA, Dupuis J, Hyppönen E, Spector TD.

EXERCISE – FAT RESPONSE TO CARDIO

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001 Sep;91(3):1334-40.
Evidence of LPL gene-exercise interaction for body fat and LPL activity : the HERITAGE Family Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11509533
Garenc C, Pérusse L, Bergeron J, Gagnon J, Chagnon YC, Borecki IB, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C.

Obes Res. 2003 May;11(5):612-8.
Effects of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene variants on adiposity: the HERITAGE Family Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12740450
Garenc C, Pérusse L, Chagnon YC, Rankinen T, Gagnon J, Borecki IB, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C; HERITAGE Family Study

EXERCISE – FITNESS RESPONSE TO CARDIO

Physiol Genomics. 2003 Jul 7;14(2):161-6.
Associations between cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and the C34T AMPD1 gene polymorphism in the HERITAGE Family Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12783984
Rico-Sanz J, Rankinen T, Joanisse DR, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Rao DC, Bouchard C; HERITAGE Family study.

Metabolism. 2004 Feb;53(2):193-202.
Apolipoprotein E genotype and changes in serum lipids and maximal oxygen uptake with exercise training.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14767871
Thompson PD, Tsongalis GJ, Seip RL, Bilbie C, Miles M, Zoeller R, Visich P, Gordon P, Angelopoulos TJ, Pescatello L, Bausserman L, Moyna N.

Metabolism. 2004 Jan;53(1):108-16.
Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake in the sedentary state and after exercise training in the HERITAGE family study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681851
Leon AS, Togashi K, Rankinen T, Després JP, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C

EXERCISE – BODY COMPOSITION RESPONSE TO STRENGTH TRAINING

International Journal of Obesity (2015) 39, 1371–1375; doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.78; published online 26 May 2015
High genetic risk individuals benefit less from resistance exercise intervention
http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v39/n9/abs/ijo201578a.html
Y C Klimentidis, J W Bea, T Lohman, P-S Hsieh, S Going and Z Chen

EXERCISE – HDL RESPONSE TO CARDIO

Metabolism. 2004 Jan;53(1):108-16.
Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake in the sedentary state and after exercise training in the HERITAGE family study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681851
Leon AS, Togashi K, Rankinen T, Després JP, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C.

EXERCISE – INSULIN SENSITIVITY RESPONSE TO CARDIO

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;288(6):E1168-78. Epub 2005 Feb 1.
Endurance training-induced changes in insulin sensitivity and gene expression.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15687108
Teran-Garcia M, Rankinen T, Koza RA, Rao DC, Bouchard C.

Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):2251-5.
Hepatic lipase gene variant -514C>T is associated with lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity response to regular exercise: the HERITAGE Family Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15983229
Teran-Garcia M, Santoro N, Rankinen T, Bergeron J, Rice T, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Bergman RN, Després JP, Bouchard C; HERITAGE Family Study.

EXERCISE – GLUCOSE RESPONSE TO CARDIO

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;288(6):E1168-78. Epub 2005 Feb 1.
Influence of Pro12Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15986237
Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud’homme D, Tesson F.

Diabetologia. 2010 Apr;53(4):679-89. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1630-2. Epub 2009 Dec 31.
Improvements in glucose homeostasis in response to regular exercise are influenced by the PPARG Pro12Ala variant: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043145
Ruchat SM, Rankinen T, Weisnagel SJ, Rice T, Rao DC, Bergman RN, Bouchard C, Pérusse L.

Metabolism. 2003 Feb;52(2):209-12.
PPARgamma gene polymorphism is associated with exercise-mediated changes of insulin resistance in healthy men.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12601634
Kahara T, Takamura T, Hayakawa T, Nagai Y, Yamaguchi H, Katsuki T, Katsuki K, Katsuki M, Kobayashi K.

How is my personal and DNA information protected?

We value the trust you place in us. To prevent unauthorized access or disclosure, to retain data accuracy, and to ensure the use of the information, we use a range of technical, physical and administrative, HIPAA-compliant, measures to protect the information we collect about our members. And your information will never be sold.  View our privacy policy for more information.

Skin Care

What is the basis for the HomeDNA Healthy Skin test?

The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003 and a group of scientists began uncovering the human skin’s unique genetic blueprint. In 2008, their research led to the discovery of 15 genetic markers that played a role in skin protection and premature aging.  Since then, an additional 17 genetic skin markers have been discovered, opening up a new era in personalized skin management.

This is a scientifically-based DNA test that examines 28 genetic markers (SNPs) in 7 categories associated with skin aging. Each category is graded on a proprietary scale.

How is the test scored?

The scale in the report is based on an algorithmic calculation and is used to visually represent genetic risk factors skin-aging processes. It is used as a way to classify the response of different types of skin based on various genetic outcomes and other external factors, including ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

I follow advice from skin-care professionals. Do I really need to take a DNA test?

Yes. The skin health insights from your DNA test can point you toward the prevention measures most suited to you. Even if you followed everybody’s advice to the letter, no one is able to accurately predict how your skin will age just by looking at you. If you’re overwhelmed with contradictory advice about what’s best for your skin; if you need motivation to maintain the long term health and quality of your skin; or if you just find it easier and more realistic to focus on areas where your skin is genetically weaker, then this test is a great resource. You no longer have to waste money guessing what works best for you!

Am I too old to take this test?

No matter what age you are, it’s never too late to focus on the future health of your skin.

How is this test different from other forms of skin analysis?

While HomeDNA Healthy Skin can be used as an analytical tool, it is the first to introduce solid predictability. Our ability to predict the future of the client’s skin based on their DNA forms the cornerstone of what this test is all about.omeHomeDNA He

Food & Pet Sensitivity

What genes are included in the Food & Pet test?

Analysis includes over 30 genetic markers (SNPs) that have been shown through external research to be related to sensitivity within each test category (for example, Gluten). The number of SNPs tested varies by category.

How long does it take to get my results?

Typical turnaround time for getting results is 6 weeks, once samples arrive at the lab. We will email you as soon as your report is ready.

What information is included in my report?

Your DNA is analyzed in 8 individual categories: gluten, lactose, cow milk protein, egg, peanut, other foods, pet dander, and histamine. In your report, results for each category where your genetics show a higher likelihood of sensitivity include the following sections:

Your Results—See details about your DNA data and a conclusion statement

Diet Tips—Get advice from professionals on how to improve your diet to lessen symptoms of sensitivity

Lifestyle Tips—Discover actionable changes you can make and steps you can take to relieve effects of sensitivity

Supplement Tips—Which supplements can be most helpful? We’ll tell you!

Do you test for any serious inherited diseases?

No. HomeDNA Food & Pet Sensitivity focuses solely on those genes that are related to the body’s sensitivity to the eight specifically-named irritants included in this test. Any DNA test performed to detect predictors for disease should be interpreted by a physician or a certified genetic counselor. Also, keep in mind this is not an allergy test. Confirmation of allergies should be issued by your medical provider.

How dependable are the results?

This is a scientifically-based test. See links below for studies used in the test report. Additionally, we have laboratory protocols that ensure very high accuracy, and so you can be sure your test has been processed correctly. Your genes play a big role in your body composition but it’s important to realize lifestyle and environmental factors may also play a significant role in sensitivities to irritants.

GLUTEN

I tested my vitamin D level. What do my results mean?
http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/i-tested-my-vitamin-d-level-what-do-my-results-mean/

Test ID: ZNS
http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8620

LACTOSE

Lactose Intolerance
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/lactose-intolerance/Pages/facts.aspx

Lactose digestion from unmodified, low-fat and lactose-hydrolyzed yogurt in adult lactose-maldigesters.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=1559509

Improved clinical tolerance to chronic lactose ingestion in subjects with lactose intolerance: a placebo effect?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9414969

The effect of oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri or tilactase in lactose intolerant patients: randomized trial
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20391953

Beneficial effects of long-term consumption of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Bifidobacterium breve Yakult may persist after suspension of therapy in lactose-intolerant patients.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22402407

The effects of the DDS-1 strain of lactobacillus on symptomatic relief for lactose intolerance – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27207411

Effect of exogenous beta-galactosidase in patients with lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a crossover double-blind placebo-controlled study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15674309

Serum diamine oxidase activity is associated with lactose malabsorption phenotypic variation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27593109

COW MILK PROTEIN
How I Treat Vitamin D Deficiency
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835491/

Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004213/

Gut Microbiota as a Target for Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention against Food Allergy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28657607

Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26617232

Hypo-allergenic and therapeutic significance of goat milk
https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)90105-8

Camel milk for food allergies in children.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382703

EGG

Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004213/

Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26617232

Egg allergy
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/egg-allergy/symptoms-causes/syc-20372115

Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for egg allergy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405335

PEANUT

The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21690110

Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004213/

Aflatoxins: Implications on Health.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28428686

OTHER FOODS

Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19489765

Fish consumption during the first year of life and development of allergic diseases during childhood.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16867056

Role of selenium and zinc in the pathogenesis of food allergy in infants and young children.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=PMC3542500

Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385025/

Dietary Fiber and Bacterial SCFA Enhance Oral Tolerance and Protect against Food Allergy through Diverse Cellular Pathways.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27332875

Impact of dietary factors and food processing on food allergy. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mnfr.201200472/abstract;jsessionid=DD4CEBEF666280BB6FBC9C74910B712E.f01t01

Increased food diversity in the first year of life is inversely associated with allergic diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24508301

Vitamin D and food allergies in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=28441981

The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21690110

Dichlorophenol-containing pesticides and allergies: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176881

Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24428964

Nutrients Mediate Intestinal Bacteria-Mucosal Immune Crosstalk.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29416535

Various effects of different probiotic strains in allergic disorders: an update from laboratory and clinical data. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883099/#b56

How I Treat Vitamin D Deficiency

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835491/

Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004213/

Gut Microbiota as a Target for Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention against Food Allergy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28657607

PET DANDER

Urban environment predisposes dogs and their owners to allergic symptoms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29371634

Urinary levels of triclosan and parabens are associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22704536

Natural treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis.        
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11056414

Gut Microbiota as a Target for Preventive and Therapeutic Intervention against Food Allergy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28657607

HISTAMINE

Histamine and histamine intolerance.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17490952

Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Histamine Levels in Selected Foods.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29200758

Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29154390

Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486577/

Antihistamine effect of supplemental ascorbic acid and neutrophil chemotaxis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1578094

Specific change of histamine metabolism in acute magnesium-deficient young rats.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3111814

Vitamin B-6 nutriture and plasma diamine oxidase activity in pregnant Hispanic teenagers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3098085

Physiological concentrations of zinc inhibit the release of histamine from human basophils and lung mast cells. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2425567

Histamine and gut mucosal immune regulation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286351

New approach for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance based on the determination of histamine and methylhistamine in urine.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28715791

Can minor children take this test?

Yes. For minor children, parental consent for testing is required via written signature on the swab envelopes.

Can this test be purchased in New York and/or Maryland?

No. New York and Maryland do not allow the retail sale or purchase of home DNA tests at this time. 

Do I need to take this test more than once?

No. This test measures  your sensitivity to common irritants at the cellular (DNA) level. Since DNA stays constant from childhood through adulthood, there is no need to test again. 

What types of foods are included in the “Other Foods” category?

Shrimp, apples, tree nuts, soy, soybean, fish, corn, and yeast are included in this category.

My DNA shows that I am “more sensitive” across several categories. How do I know which recommendations to start with in order to feel better?

Gluten and dairy sensitivities have the most immediate physical effect on most people, so those whose DNA shows the possibility of sensitivities in these areas may want to start with those tips to see if it brings them relief. If symptoms remain, try eliminating foods from other categories, such as eggs and peanuts, then finally edibles from the “Other Foods” category. Of course, genetic indications of food or pet dander sensitivity are only one piece of the puzzle. Other factors, such as current diet, exercise, or other environmental conditions, may also affect sensitivity. Consult your medical practitioner before taking any supplements or making significant changes to your diet.

My report shows “results inconclusive” in a category. What does this mean?

RESULTS INCONCLUSIVE  is displayed when the lab cannot detect the alleles (letters) that match with your gene or the gene is not found. This does not mean there is anything wrong with your genes or that there is something wrong with you.  Each time a new DNA sample is received, the lab creates a new analysis. Sometimes an analysis produces results that fall outside the area that the software expects. When this happens, the software cannot determine which letter combination (A, T, C, G)  is the correct result and issues the following symbol as a result:  (–) . RESULTS INCONCLUSIVE is displayed because the algorithm needs a letter combination to make a conclusion about your sensitivity. You may have (–) as a result for one of your genes and still have sensitivities to certain foods or pet dander. Rerunning your DNA cannot fix this issue, because the same thing will happen again.

How is my personal and DNA information protected?
HomeDNA values the trust you place in us. To prevent unauthorized access or disclosure, to retain data accuracy, and to ensure the use of the information, we use a range of technical, physical and administrative, HIPAA-compliant, measures to protect the information we collect about our members. And your information will never be sold.

Reach Us

Have questions or need assistance? Contact our team.

DNA Technology Park
1 DDC Way
Fairfield, OH 45014

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